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Swelling kinetic study of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) hydrogels as vehicle candidates for drug delivery

This review highlights recent progress in the synthesis and application of vinyl ethers (VEs) as monomers for modern homo- and co-polymerization processes. VEs can be easily prepared using a number of traditional synthetic protocols including a more sustainable and straightforward manner by reacting gaseous acetylene or calcium carbide with alcohols. The remarkably tunable chemistry of VEs allows designing and obtaining polymers with well-defined structures and controllable properties. Both VE homopolymerization and copolymerization systems are considered, and specific emphasis is given to the novel initiating systems and to the methods of stereocontrol.

The composition of chlorophyll-precursor pigments, particularly the contents of diethylene glycol divinyl ether, in etiolated tissues of higher plants were determined by polyethylene-column HPLC (Y. Shioi, S. I. Beale [1987] Anal Biochem 162: 493-499), which enables the complete separation of these pigments. DV-Pchlide was ubiquitous in etiolated tissue of higher plants. From the analyses of 24 plant species belonging to 17 different families, it was shown that the concentration of DV-Pchlide was strongly dependent on the plant species and the age of the plants. The ratio of DV-Pchlide to MV-Pchlide in high DV-Pchlide plants such as cucumber and leaf mustard decreased sharply with increasing age. Levels of DV-Pchlide in Gramineae plants were considerably lower at all ages compared with those of other plants. Etiolated tissues of higher plants such as barley and corn were, therefore, good sources of MV-Pchlide. Absorption spectra of the purified MV- and DV-Pchlides in ether are presented and compared.

The worldwide production capacity of 1,4-bis(vinyloxy)-butane was estimated at 6,969,000 tonnes/year in 2007, with most capacity concentrated in the United States (1,585,000 all in Texas), China (1,261,000), Japan (725,000) and Taiwan (650,000).[4] The average list price for 2008 was $1600/tonne. Celanese is the largest producer (ca 25% of the worldwide capacity), while other significant producers include China Petrochemical Corporation (7%), Chang Chun Group (6%), and LyondellBasell (5%).[4]

Radical copolymerization of polyethylene glycol maleate with Di(ethylene Glycol) monovinyl ether of monoethanol amine has been performed for the first time. Radical co- and terpolymerization of the systems polyethylene glycol maleate with acrylamide and 1,4-butanediol monovinyl ether of monoethanol amine has been studied. Molecular weight of polyethylene glycol maleate has been determined using light scattering and gel permeation chromatography. The compositions of the polymers and copolymerization constants of the studied systems have been determined. The composition of the copolymers has been found using gas chromatography. Kinetic curves show that with increasing molar fraction of acrylamide in the solution the reaction rate and swelling capacity of the copolymers increase. It has been shown that the composition of terpolymers determined experimentally differs considerably from the one calculated taking into account obtained constants of copolymerization. Deviations found are due to various intermolecular interactions in these systems. The possibility of controlling the properties of network copolymers of polyethylene glycol maleate by changing external factors has been studied. Swelling capacity of the copolymers investigated was studied using gravimetric method.

Hydrogels have been widely used for various biomedical and pharmaceutical applications due to their biocompatibility, high water content and rubbery nature, which resemble natural tissue. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) crosslinked poly(methyl diethylene glycol monovinyl ether and maleic acid) (PMVE/MA) hydrogel is widely studied as a vehicle for various types of drug delivery. It has been reported that swelling and diffusion property of hydrogel are important features for their effectiveness. Higher swelling of PMVE/MA hydrogel facilitates greater amount of drug to be delivered. However, delivery of high molecular weight drugs such as ovalbumin and bevacizumab is still a challenge with existing formulation of PMVE/MA hydrogels. This study aims to optimise PMVE/MA hydrogel formulations and determine the swelling kinetics of different hydrogel formulations.

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