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Rack and Pinion Steering

A DRIVER steering a car on a twisting road has two distinct tasks: to match the road curvature, and to keep a proper distance from the lane edges. Both are achieved by turning the steering wheel, but it is not clear which part or parts of the road ahead supply the visual information needed, or how it is used. Current models of the behaviour of real drivers1,2 or 'co-driver' simulators3–5 vary greatly in their implementation of these tasks, but all agree that successful steering requires the driver to monitor the angular deviation of the road from the vehicle's present heading at some 'preview' distance ahead, typically about 1 s into the future. Eye movement recordings generally support this view6–9. Here we have used a simple road simulator, in which only certain parts of the road are displayed, to show that at moderate to high speeds accurate driving requires that both a distant and a near region of the road are visible. The former is used to estimate road curvature and the latter to provide position-in-lane feedback. At lower speeds only the near region is necessary. These results support a two-stage model1 of driver behaviour.

Why do some cars respond so well to the driver? Great handling makes you feel safe and in control – and makes panic swerves and steering corrections as effective as possible. The lightest touch of the wheel should direct the steering system effortlessly and precisely. As well as a well-designed suspension parts, it takes a good quality steering system and steering parts to achieve excellent handling. If you’d like to know the anatomy of a steering system and how it supports handling, road holding and driveability, here is an easy overview.

The function of a steering parts

When you rotate the steering wheel, the car responds. But how does this steering system in cars give you a smooth route forward? A group of parts called the steering system transmits the movement of the steering wheel down the steering shaft to move the wheels left and right – although car wheels don’t turn at the same angle. 

Some vehicles now have steering on all four wheels. This arrangement was introduced primarily to permit a tighter turning circle and to facilitate parking in a restricted space. It is most useful for truck chassis other parts, heavy goods vehicles and tractors, although it is also available on a few cars. The rear wheels, which cannot turn as far as the front wheels, are controlled by a computer and actuators.

TPVs are widely used in automotive applications (e.g., weather stripping, rack-and-pinion steering gear bellows, constant velocity joint boots, air master booster door covers, body plugs, interior skins, etc.) and in appliances (disk drive seals, dishwasher sump boot, door seals, and compressor mounts). The used articles and production scrap are simply ground in a granulator, and the granulate is added in relatively high proportions to the virgin material. The TPV granulate is compatible with granulate prepared from TPO. In fact, it was found that the addition of TPV granulate improves the properties of the TPO material [5]. Many automotive manufacturers have started extensive car dismantling programs and are working together with polymer manufacturers to recycle and reuse material, often in “closed-loop” systems, in which the material goes back into the original product [6].

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